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What do you need to know about Jaundice?

Let us understand jaundice disease. Jaundice is a common disease seen in both children and adults. This disease is detected when the color of the patient's eyes and skin starts to look pale. Apart from this, the urine starts becoming light or dark yellow. In this, the color of stool may also be light white in some patients. Many times, the patient may have fever and weakness before the yellowing of the eyes. Apart from this, the patient may also complain of abdominal pain or heaviness.


Jaundice is a common disease in some cases, whose treatment is also easy. But in some cases, it is an indicator of a serious disease, which includes cancer. Let us now know about jaundice in more detail and understand some of its main causes. Jaundice is caused by excess amount of bilirubin in the body. Bilirubin is a substance produced by the liver that accumulates inside the body due to improper liver function. There are two main causes of jaundice, one is medical and the other is surgical.


For medical reasons, mainly hepatitis infection comes. There are five types of hepatitis infection. These include Hepatitis A, B, C, D and E. Hepatitis A and E are usually caused by consumption of contaminated food and water. This disease mostly comes in monsoon, and it causes weakness, fever and jaundice. This disease usually occurs in children and in this disease, medicines bring relief in 15-20 days. But in some cases, such as elderly Hepatitis disease can take a serious form in people and especially in pregnant women. Hepatitis A can be prevented by the hepatitis A vaccination. Apart from this, especially in monsoon and on other days of the year, avoid eating and drinking outside. If pregnant women have hepatitis, then immediately show them to a liver specialist, if needed, go to a tertiary care hospital.


Hepatitis B, C and D can be transmitted to a patient by infected blood or by consuming drugs through needles and also by sexual relation with an infected person. This disease can also be transmitted from the mother to the child at the time of birth. This disease does not spread by eating and by taking care of the patient or by touching hands. Long-term exposure to hepatitis B and C virus can also lead to liver cirrhosis. The good thing is that nowadays effective medicines are available for hepatitis B and C. This medicine can be started by a hepatologist or liver specialist. Also there is a vaccine to prevent Hepatitis B. The incidence of hepatitis B is now decreasing due to the vaccine. To prevent hepatitis B, C and D, always take blood from a registered blood bank and always use sterilized and packaged needles.


Let us now know about liver cirrhosis. Cirrhosis is a serious disease. Cirrhosis is caused by excessive damage to the liver. There can be many reasons for liver damage. It is mainly caused by excessive alcohol consumption and hepatitis B and C infection and excessive diabetes or obesity. Many congenital diseases in children such as biliary atresia, Wilson's disease, etc. can cause liver damage even from birth, but its probability is one in many thousands of births. Due to liver cirrhosis, the patient has problems like jaundice, vomiting of blood and water in the stomach. There is also a possibility of liver cancer in cirrhosis. For the treatment of advanced cirrhosis, you doctor will advise you for liver transplant. Can do. Due to the success rate of liver transplant being 80-90 percent at present, it is an effective solution.


Now lets know about the surgical causes of jaundice. Everyone knows about gallstones. Sometimes this stone can also cause jaundice due to slipping in the bile duct. This stone is detected in ultrasound or 'MRCP'. The treatment of this is easy, this stone can be removed through endoscopy or by operation and jaundice is relieved by removing the stone.

Jaundice can also be a cancer indicator. Along with jaundice, if the patient has lost a lot of weight, or if there is pain in the stomach and weakness, then these can be symptoms of cancer. Mainly gallbladder cancer, due to formation of lump due to pancreas cancer, there is pressure in the bile duct. And bilirubin does not reach from liver to intestines, due to which jaundice occurs. Having jaundice means that the lump of cancer has increased.


Gallbladder cancer is mostly seen in the Gangetic plains in India. In this disease, the patient's condition is worse than gallstones and ultrasound also shows mass. If lumps are seen in addition to stones in the gallbladder or swelling is seen in the wall, then CT scan can be done to get more information about that cancer. If the patient has jaundice with abdominal pain, do not ignore it and get it properly examined in time and if cancer is suspected, get it diagnosed by CT scan without any delay. Many times the treatment of cancer is not possible due to delay. Its operation is also big. If the operation is not possible, then chemotherapy remains an option. To reduce jaundice before chemotherapy, a stent may have to be inserted in the bile duct by endoscopy or by ultrasound. Jaundice is reduced by this and sometimes the patient who has itching in jaundice also gets relief from it. Get the treatment of this cancer done in a specialist center only. And follow the advice given by the doctor.

Medanta Medical Team
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