What is Hypogonadism?

Hypogonadism is a gonadal disorder in which the body produces insufficient amounts of testosterone. Testosterone is a hormone that plays an important role in the growth and development of the male body during puberty. Hypogonadism may also affect sperm production. The disease may develop during fetal development, before puberty or during adulthood.


The signs and symptoms of hypogonadism include:

During fetal development

  • Ambiguous or underdeveloped genitals

During puberty

  • Decreased muscle mass
  • Shrill male voice
  • Lack of facial and body hair
  • Impaired growth of the penis and testicles
  • Long arms and legs in comparison to the body
  • Growth of breast tissue

During Adulthood

  • Erectile dysfunction
  • Infertility
  • Decreased muscle mass
  • Lack of facial and body hair
  • Growth of breast tissue
  • Decreased bone mass


Common causes of hypogonadism include:

  • Klinefelter’s syndrome
  • Undescended testicles
  • Infection in the testicles
  • Too much iron in the blood
  • Injury to the testicles
  • Radiation therapy
  • Chemotherapy
  • Kallmann’s syndrome
  • Pituitary disorders
  • Inflammatory disease
  • Obesity


The following factors increase the risk of hypogonadism:

  • Old age
  • Obesity
  • Kallmann’s syndrome
  • Underdeveloped testicles
  • Infection in the testicles
  • Injury to the testicles
  • Testicular or pituitary tumors
  • Klinefelter’s syndrome
  • Hemochromatosis
  • Chemotherapy
  • Radiation therapy


The disease cannot be prevented.

How is it diagnosed?

The doctor conducts a physical exam and may test the patient’s blood level of testosterone if any signs of hypogonadism are observed. An early detection during puberty helps in preventing severe ...

How is it treated?

Treatment for hypogonadism is usually based on the underlying cause, age of the patient and his fertility concern. The treatments for hypogonadism include:


  • Hormone replacement therapy

    Hormone replacement therapy or testosterone replacement therapy helps in restoring muscle strength, stimulating puberty, preventing bone loss, increasing body energy and restoring the erectile function.

  • Injection

    The doctor may suggest testosterone injections for treating hypogonadism. Testosterone is injected into the patient’s muscles. The procedure may cause some side effects depending on the frequency of the injections.

  • Patch

    A patch that contains testosterone is applied daily to the patient’s body. The area of application (back, abdomen, upper arm or thigh) should be changed every day in order to avoid skin reactions.

  • Gel

    Testosterone can be produced artificially in the body using certain gel preparations that can either be rubbed on the upper arm, shoulder, armpit, on the front and the inner thigh, from where the body absorbs the testosterone through your skin.

  • Testopel

    Testopel is an implantable pellet that contains Testosterone and is surgically administered into the skin in a span of every three to six months.

When do I contact the doctor?

One should contact a doctor when prominent signs and symptoms of hypogonadism are observed. 

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How does Medanta provide care?

Medanta ensures expert care for its patients who are diagnosed with hypogonadism at the Institute of Endocrinology & Diabetology.

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