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Lung Cancer

Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of deaths across the Globe. According to the World Cancer Research Fund International, lung cancer is the primary cause of death by cancer in males and the second most common cause among females all around the world. Lung cancer's early signs can be difficult to detect, but the earlier you receive a diagnosis, the better your prognosis and treatment options.


Surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy are the main types of treatment for lung cancer. Targeted therapy and immunotherapy are more recent treatments.



The lining of the bronchi is where most lung malignancies begin (air passageways branching off the trachea or breathing tube). In addition, particularly in the outer regions of the lungs, glands beneath the lining of the bronchi can develop lung cancer. These lung cancers are either small cell or non-small cell lung cancers, both of which have distinct growth and metastasis patterns:


Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
Compared to small-cell lung cancer, non-small-cell lung cancer tends to grow and spread more slowly. Non-small cell lung cancer can be classified into three primary subtypes according to the cells from which it arises:


A. Adenocarcinoma- It frequently begins to grow close to the lung's edge and can vary in size and rate of growth. Both smokers and individuals who have never smoked are most likely to get this type of lung cancer.

B. Squamous cell carcinoma most frequently begins in one of the bigger breathing tubes close to the middle of the chest. These lung tumors might be extremely little or rather substantial in size.

C. Large cell carcinoma - When identified, the tumor frequently begins at the pulmonary margin, develops quickly, and is usually extremely widespread.


Small Cell Lung Cancer
About 15% of all lung cancers are small cell lung cancers, which are less prevalent than non- small cell lung cancer. By the time a patient receives a diagnosis, their lung cancer will probably be advanced and have spread to other body parts.


Rare Chest Cancer
More than a dozen different rare cancer types, some of which may or may not originate from the lung, can form in the chest. Carcinoid tumors, which are frequently found in significant airways, and malignant mesothelioma, which arises from the lung' s pleura, are two less frequent varieties.


The mesothelium, the protective membrane that covers the majority of the body's internal organs, is a target of the cancer mesothelioma. Only 3,000 people are affected by this rare cancer each year, and it typically develops in the pleura, the mesothelium that surrounds the lungs. However, it can also develop in the pericardium, the membrane that covers the heart. Typically, mesothelioma develops decades after asbestos exposure.


Although anyone can develop lung cancer, smoking is the leading cause in 90% of cases. As soon as you inhale smoke, your lung tissue begins to suffer damage. When lung cells are harmed, aberrant behavior sets in. This makes lung cancer more likely to occur. Heavy smoking is almost always linked to small-cell lung cancer. You may be able to heal your lungs after you stop smoking, which will lower your risk of developing lung cancer.


By inhaling risky drugs like:
1.       Radon
2.      Asbestos
3.      Arsenic
4.      Cadmium
5.      Chromium
6.      Nickel
7.      Uranium
8.      Some petroleum products


The second most common cause of lung cancer, according to the American Lung Association, is radon exposure.

According to research, having inherited abnormalities in your genes increases your risk of getting lung cancer, especially if you smoke or are exposed to other toxins. There may not always be a clear etiology for lung cancer.



In its early stages, lung cancer often exhibits no signs or symptoms. Lung cancer signs and
symptoms often appear when the condition is advanced.


Lung cancer symptoms and signs may include:
1.      Shortness of breath
2.      Chest pain
3.      Hoarseness
4.      Losing weight without trying
5.      Bone pain
6.      Headache
7.      A persistent cough that just started
8.      Spitting out blood, even a little bit of it



A physical examination and a talk with your doctor are the first steps in diagnosing lung cancer.

They'll want to review your medical history and any current symptoms you may be experiencing. Tests are also required to verify the diagnosis.

These could consist of:
1. Imaging Tests - X-ray, MRI, CT, and PET scans can all reveal an aberrant mass. These scans uncover tiny lesions and give more detail.
2. Sputum Cytology - When you cough up phlegm, a microscopic examination can reveal whether cancer cells are present.
3. Bronchoscopy - A lighted tube is inserted into your lungs while you are sedated so that the tissue of your lungs may be examined more closely.


A biopsy might be performed as well. A biopsy is a technique in which a tiny sample of lung tissue is taken and afterward inspected under a microscope. A biopsy can reveal the cancerousness of tumor cells. A biopsy can be carried out with one of the following techniques:
1. Mediastinoscopy - Your doctor creates a neck incision to do a mediastinoscopy. To collect samples from lymph nodes, a lit instrument is inserted, and surgical tools are employed. Under general anesthesia, it is typically carried out at a hospital.
2.Lung Needle Biopsy - During this treatment, your doctor places a needle into the questionable lung tissue after puncturing the chest wall. Lymph nodes can also be examined using a needle biopsy. You will often have it done at a hospital, and a sedative will be given to you to help you relax.


If the results of the biopsy indicate that you have cancer, you may require additional testing, such as a bone scan, to help identify whether the disease has progressed and to aid in staging.


Lung cancer treatments aim to either eradicate the cancer from your body or stop it from spreading. Cancerous cells can be removed, assisted in being destroyed, prevented from proliferating, or taught to your immune system to combat them. A few remedies are also employed to lessen signs and ease discomfort. The type of lung cancer you have, its location, the extent of its spread, and a host of other factors will all affect how you are treated.

Some lung cancer therapies are used to treat symptoms like pain and breathing difficulties. These include treatments to drain fluid from around your lungs and prevent it from returning, as well as medicines to lessen or remove tumors that are obstructing airways.


Your healthcare professionals can help you understand what to anticipate in terms of follow-up care, lifestyle adjustments, and making crucial health-related decisions after cancer treatment.

Follow-up testing will be done to make sure the cancer does not return if localized or regional lung cancer has received a therapy intended to cure the disease. Additionally, you will have your treatment-related side effects evaluated, and you will be given treatment to address any accompanying problems.

Dr. Arvind Kumar
Lung Transplant
Meet The Doctor
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