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Heartburn Explained: Causes, Symptoms, and Relief Strategies

Heart burning is a common condition that affects a significant portion of the population. It is characterised by a burning sensation in the chest, often accompanied by a sour taste in the mouth. Understanding the causes, recognizing the symptoms, and implementing effective relief strategies are crucial for managing heartburn and improving overall well-being. In this blog, we will delve into the intricacies of heartburn, explore the various causes, discuss common symptoms, and provide practical relief strategies.


Understanding Heartburn


A. Definition and Causes

Heart burning, also known as acid indigestion, is a condition caused by the stomach acid back flowing into your oesophagus. The lower esophageal sphincter (LES), a muscular ring that acts as a barrier between the stomach and the oesophagus, is responsible for preventing acid reflux. When the LES weakens or relaxes inappropriately, stomach acid can flow back into your oesophagus, leading to the discomfort associated with heart burning.


Several factors can lead to the occurrence of heartburn:

  1. Weak LES Muscles: If the muscles of the LES are weak, they may not effectively close the opening between the stomach and the oesophagus, allowing acid to escape.
  2. Hiatal Hernia: A hiatal hernia occurs when a portion of the stomach protrudes through the diaphragm into the chest cavity. This displacement can weaken the LES, leading to acid reflux.
  3. Certain Foods and Beverages: Spicy, fatty, acidic, and fried foods, as well as carbonated drinks, chocolate, and caffeine, are known triggers for heartburn.
  4. Obesity and Excessive Weight: Extra weight, particularly around the abdominal area, puts pressure on the stomach and can force acid into the oesophagus.
  5. Pregnancy: Hormonal changes during pregnancy can relax the LES, increasing the likelihood of acid reflux.
  6. Smoking and Alcohol Consumption: Smoking weakens the LES and increases stomach acid production, while alcohol can irritate the oesophagus and contribute to acid reflux.


B. Recognizing Symptoms to Diagnose Heart Burning

Heart burning presents several distinct symptoms, which may vary in intensity and frequency among individuals:


  1. Burning Sensation in the Chest: The hallmark symptom of heartburn is a burning sensation in the chest behind the breastbone, often described as a fiery or gnawing sensation.
  2. Sour Taste in the Mouth: Acid regurgitation can cause a sour or bitter taste in the mouth, resulting in an unpleasant sensation.
  3. Regurgitation of Stomach Acid: In severe cases, individuals may experience the actual backflow of stomach acid into the throat, causing a sour or acidic taste.


Heart Burning Relief Methods


Managing heartburn involves a combination of lifestyle modifications, over-the-counter medications, and natural acidity remedies. Implementing these strategies can help alleviate symptoms and prevent recurrent episodes.


A. Lifestyle Modifications


  1. Dietary Changes: Adjusting your eating habits can significantly reduce heartburn symptoms.
  2. Avoid Trigger Foods: Identify and eliminate foods and beverages that trigger heartburn. These may include spicy foods, greasy/fatty dishes, citrus fruits, tomatoes, onions, garlic, chocolate, coffee, tea, carbonated drinks, and alcohol.
  3. Eat Smaller, More Frequent Meals: Opt for smaller portions to reduce pressure on the stomach and promote better digestion.
  4. Maintain a Healthy Weight: Losing excess weight can alleviate pressure on the abdomen and reduce the likelihood of acid reflux.
  5. Elevate the Head While Sleeping: Raise the head of your bed by using a wedge pillow or by placing blocks under the bedposts. This elevation helps keep stomach acid in the stomach during sleep.
  6. Avoid Lying Down Immediately After Eating: Allow at least two to three hours between meals and bedtime to allow for proper digestion.
  7. Quit Smoking and Limit Alcohol Consumption: Smoking weakens the LES and increases acid production, while alcohol irritates the oesophagus and contributes to acid reflux.
  8. Identify and Manage Stress Triggers: Stress can exacerbate heartburn symptoms. Implement stress-reducing techniques such as mindfulness meditation, deep breathing exercises, yoga, or engaging in hobbies to manage stress effectively.


B. Over-the-Counter (OTC) Medications



Antacids are readily available and provide temporary relief by neutralising stomach acid.


  • Mechanism of Action: Antacids contain alkaline compounds such as calcium carbonate or magnesium hydroxide that react with stomach acid, neutralising its acidity.
  • Common Antacid Ingredients: Calcium carbonate (Tums, Rolaids) and magnesium hydroxide (Maalox, Mylanta) are commonly used antacid ingredients.


H2 Blockers

H2 blockers reduce the production of stomach acid, offering longer-lasting relief compared to antacids.


  • Mechanism of Action: H2 blockers work by blocking histamine receptors in the stomach, which reduces the production of stomach acid.
  • Over-the-Counter Examples: Famotidine (Pepcid AC) and ranitidine (Zantac) are commonly available H2 blockers.


C. Proton Pump Inhibitors (PPIs)


  1. Role of PPIs: PPIs are highly effective at reducing stomach acid production and provide long-lasting relief for frequent heartburn sufferers.
  2. Mechanism of Action: PPIs inhibit the enzyme responsible for producing stomach acid, effectively reducing its production.
  3. Popular OTC PPIs: Omeprazole (Prilosec OTC), lansoprazole (Prevacid 24HR), and esomeprazole (Nexium 24HR) are widely used OTC PPIs.
  4. Consultation with Healthcare Professionals: It is important to consult a healthcare professional before using long-term or prescription-strength PPIs to ensure appropriate usage and dosage.


Natural Acidity Remedies to Relieve Heart-Burning Sensation


In addition to lifestyle modifications and OTC medications, several natural acidity remedies can provide relief for heartburn sufferers.


A. Herbal Acidity Remedies


  1. Ginger: Ginger has anti-inflammatory characteristics and can help soothe the gastrointestinal tract. Consuming ginger tea or incorporating fresh ginger into meals may provide relief.
  2. Chamomile: This tea is known for its calming properties and can help alleviate heartburn symptoms.
  3. Licorice Root: Licorice root has mucilage properties that coat and protect the oesophagus, reducing irritation caused by acid reflux. DGL (deglycyrrhizinated licorice) supplements are recommended to avoid potential side effects.
  4. Aloe Vera Juice: Aloe vera juice has soothing properties that can help lessen inflammation in the oesophagus and alleviate heartburn symptoms. It is essential to use pure, organic aloe vera juice without added sugars or preservatives.


B. Lifestyle Approaches

  1. Weight Management and Regular Exercise: Maintaining a healthy weight and indulging in regular physical activity can reduce pressure on the stomach, preventing acid reflux.
  2. Good Posture During and After Meals: Sitting upright during meals and avoiding slouching or lying down immediately after eating can help prevent acid reflux.
  3. Chewing Gum and Adequate Water Intake: Chewing sugar-free gum stimulates saliva production, which helps neutralise acid and promote digestion. Drinking enough water throughout the day aids in digestion and prevents dehydration, which can worsen heartburn symptoms.


C. Alternative Therapies

  1. Acupuncture: Acupuncture, an ancient Chinese practice involving the insertion of thin needles into certain points on your body, has shown promising results in reducing heartburn symptoms.
  2. Acupressure: This involves applying pressure to certain points on the body to alleviate symptoms. Applying pressure to the Pericardium 6 (P6) point, located on the inside of the wrist, has been known to provide relief from heartburn.
  3. Reflexology: This focuses on applying pressure to specific points on the feet that correspond to different organs in the body. Targeting the reflex points associated with the oesophagus and stomach may help alleviate heartburn symptoms.




Heartburn can significantly impact daily life and overall well-being. By understanding the causes and recognizing the symptoms, individuals can take proactive steps to manage heartburn effectively. Implementing lifestyle modifications, utilising over-the-counter medications when necessary, and exploring natural remedies and alternative therapies can provide relief and minimise the frequency and intensity of heartburn episodes. 


It is paramount to consult with a healthcare professional for personalised advice and treatment options, especially if heartburn symptoms persist or worsen. With the right strategies, it is possible to find relief and regain control over heartburn, improving quality of life and promoting better digestive health.


If you experience heartburn or acidity very frequently, consult an expert gastroenterologist today!

Medanta Medical Team
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