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Early Detection of Breast Cancer: Importance of Regular Self-Exams and Mammograms

Breast cancer affects millions of women worldwide, making early detection crucial for improving treatment outcomes and survival rates. Regular self-exams and mammograms play a pivotal role in identifying breast cancer at its earliest stages when it is most treatable. In this blog, we’ll explore the breast cancer symptoms and causes of breast cancer, discuss the importance of self-exams and mammograms for early detection, and delve into the various breast cancer stages and treatment options available.


Understanding Breast Cancer


Definition and Prevalence

Breast cancer is a malignant tumour that develops in the breast tissue, with women being the primary demographic affected. According to the WHO, it is the most common cancer among women globally, accounting for approximately 25% of all cancer cases.


Causes of Breast Cancer

While the main cause of breast cancer is often unknown, it is influenced by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Age, family history, genetic mutations such as BRCA1 and BRCA2, hormonal factors, and lifestyle choices such as alcohol use, inactivity, and obеsity are among the risk factors.


Breast Cancer Symptoms


Recognizing breast cancer symptoms is crucial for early detection. Although breast cancer symptoms may vary, individuals should be aware of common signs, including:


  1. Presence of a lump or thickening in the breast or armpit.
  2. Changes in breast size or shape.
  3. Nipple discharge or inversion.
  4. Skin changes, such as dimpling, redness, or scaling.
  5. Breast or nipple pain.
  6. Swelling or a lump in the lymph nodes near the breast.


It is important to note that not all cases present noticeable breast cancer symptoms, underscoring the importance of regular self-exams and mammograms.


Early Detection Methods



Regular self-exams empower individuals to become familiar with their breast tissue and identify any changes or abnormalities. Here's a step-by-step guide to performing a breast self-exam:


  1. Stand in front of a mirror, observing any changes in breast size, shape, or contour.
  2. Raise your arms and examine your breasts again, noting any dimpling, swelling, or changes in the nipples.
  3. Lie down and use the opposite hand to examine each breast, making circular motions with the pads of your fingers, covering the entire breast and armpit area.
  4. Stand or sit up and repeat the process for both breasts, this time using firm pressure.
  5. Lastly, check for any nipple discharge by gently squeezing the nipples.

While self-exams are not fool proof, they complement other screening methods and help raise awareness about breast health.



Mammography is a widely used and effective screening tool for breast cancer. By using low-dose X-rays, mammograms can detect changes in breast tissue that may not be felt through physical examination alone. The general recommendation is that women undergo regular mammograms beginning at the age of 40, or earlier if there is an increased risk or family history of breast cancer.


During a mammogram, the breast is gently compressed between two plates to spread the tissue and obtain clearer images. While this may cause some discomfort, the procedure is relatively quick and painless. Mammograms can detect abnormalities, such as calcifications or masses, before they can be felt.


Breast Cancer Stages and Treatment


Breast Cancer Stages


Breast cancer staging is a critical aspect of determining the extent of the disease and guiding appropriate treatment strategies. Staging is based on various factors, including the size of the tumour, lymph node involvement, and the presence of metastasis (spread to distant organs). The stages of breast cancer are:


  1. Stage 0: At this stage, also known as carcinoma in situ, cancerous cells are confined to the ducts or lobules of the breast, without invasion into surrounding tissues. The prognosis at this stage is generally excellent.
  2. Stages I and II: These stages involve localised tumours in the breast, with stage I being characterised by smaller tumours and stage II by larger tumours or involvement of nearby lymph nodes. Treatment at these stages often involves surgical removal of the tumour, followed by additional therapies as needed.
  3. Stage III: Called as locally advanced breast cancer, stage III signifies a more extensive tumour with potential spread to nearby lymph nodes or tissues. Treatment typically includes a combination of surgery, radiation therapy, and systemic therapies like chemotherapy or targeted therapy.
  4. Stage IV: At this advanced stage, the cancer has metastasized to distant organs, like bones, lungs, liver, or brain. Controlling thе disеasе, the symptoms, and improvіng qualіty of life arе the main goals of treatment. To accomplish this, systemіc therapy, such as chemotherapy, targеted therapy, hormonе therapy, or radiatіon therapy are used.


Breast Cancer Treatment Options


The treatmеnts for breast cancer vary depending on various factors, including the cancеr's stage, the patient's general health, and their specific preferеnces. These therapeutic choices might include:


  1. Surgery: A lumpеctomy, which entails the removal of thе tumour along wіth a thin margіn of healthy tіssue, and a mastectomy, which entails the complete removal of the breast, may be pеrformеd, depending on the stage and severity of the disease.
  2. Radiation Therapy: High-energy X-rays or other forms of radiation are used to kill cancer cells or shrink tumours, often following surgery to destroy any remaining cancer cells in the breast or surrounding lymph nodes.
  3. Chemotherapy: Anti-cancer drugs are administered either intravenously or orally to destroy cancer cells throughout the body. Chemotherapy is often used in cases where there is a higher risk of cancer recurrence or spread.
  4. Targeted Therapy: These medications specifically target certain molecules or receptors on cancer cells, inhibiting their growth and blocking the signals that support their survival. Targeted therapies are often used for cancers that have specific genetic characteristics or hormone receptor-positive breast cancers.
  5. Hormone Therapy: This treatment is used for hormone receptor-positive breast cancers, where medications are employed to block the effects of oestrogen or lower oestrogen levels, as oestrogen can stimulate the growth of certain breast cancers.


The selection of treatment options depends on individualised factors and is often determined through multidisciplinary discussions among healthcare providers.




Early detection plays a crucial role in fighting breast cancer and improving survival rates. Regular self-exams and mammograms are essential tools for identifying breast cancer at its earliest stages. 


By being aware of symptoms, performing self-exams, and adhering to screening guidelines, individuals can take proactive steps to ensure their breast health. Remember, early detection saves lives, so prioritise your breast health and consult healthcare professionals if you have any concerns.


Dr. Niharika Roy
Cancer Care
Meet The Doctor
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