Prostate cancer is a cancer that arises in the prostate gland, which is a walnut-shaped gland that produces prostate fluid (which is part of semen). Prostate cancer is the second most frequent cancer among men in the United States and one of the most common types of cancer in men above the age of 65 years.
Due to widespread screening for prostate cancer, most of the cancers detected today are asymptomatic. However, in late or locally advanced stages it may cause symptoms as follow:
Blood in Urine: Haematuria, often known as the appearance of blood in the urine can be noted in patients with prostate cancer. Urine that is pink, red, or dark brown can be blood. If you see blood in your urine, seek medical help immediately since this could indicate a tumor or other malignant growth.
Blood in semen: Blood in semen especially in men above the age of 60 years should be evaluated further, as it may be a sign of underlying prostate cancer.
Feelings of Pain or Burning When Urinating: Feelings of pain or burning while peeing are commonly due to urinary infections. However, such symptoms should not be overseen especially in men above the age of 60 years.
Weak Urine Stream or Trouble Urinating: If you have trouble urinating or see a weak urine stream and you are above the age of 60 years you should consult a urologist. Prostate enlargement due to non-cancerous and cancerous causes can lead to poor urinary stream.
Pelvic Pain, Lower Back Pain, or Side Pain: These symptoms can also indicate the late stages of prostate cancer. In later stages, prostate cancer can spread to bones and lead to such symptoms.
Robotic Surgery: Robotic surgery is a minimally invasive surgery that uses a robot to assist the surgeon with the procedure. In robotic surgery, a robotic console is placed beside the patient in the operating theatre. Attached to the console are three or four robotic arms; two or three for instruments and one for a high magnification-D camera to allow the surgeon to see inside the abdomen. The two robotic arms have the ability to hold various instruments attached to them and allow the surgeon to carry out the operation. The instruments have a greater range of movement than the human hand and, because of their size, they allow the surgeon to carry out the operation using 3-D imaging in a small space within the body.
Robot-assisted Radical Prostatectomy: The robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) is an operation to remove the prostate using with smaller incisions to remove the gland. For prostate cancer, RARP has become the standard of care. RARP is associated with reduced blood loss, less pain and early return of urinary and sexual function as compared to conventional surgery.
Active Surveillance: Doctors may occasionally advise careful waiting or active surveillance for slow-growing early-stage malignancies. This entails routinely checking the malignancy to see if it develops or changes. If cancer begins to spread or exhibit signs, treatment might be started.
Radiation Therapy: High-energy radiation is used to eliminate prostate cancer cells. It can be used either separately or in conjunction with surgery. External beam radiation and brachytherapy are the two methods of radiation therapy used for prostate cancer. Although brachytherapy requires the implantation of tiny radioactive seeds, external beam radiation distributes radiation from outside the body.
Hormone Therapy: Advanced stages of Prostate cancer are treated with hormone therapy. It includes lowering the levels of male hormones, which can promote malignancy growth. Drugs or injections can be used to deliver hormone treatment.
There are no proven treatments or remedies to reduce the risk of prostate cancer. However, the following measures may be undertaken in general which are more closely related to following a healthy lifestyle. By leading a healthier lifestyle, one can reduce the chances of diseases like prostate cancer. Maintaining a healthy weight requires regular exercise, eating a well-balanced diet, quitting smoking, and refraining from alcohol consumption.
Screening for prostate cancer is recommended for every man above the age of 55-60 years. Screening involves a blood test called prostate-specific antigen and a physical per rectal examination of prostate cancer. It has been noted that cancers detected through screening are usually early-stage and low-risk, thus more curable.
Prostate cancer is common cancer in men above the age of 65 years. If detected early through screening it is a very much curable cancer. In some cases it may be associated with some warning signs which should not be ignored especially if you are above the age of 60 years. You should seek medical attention immediately if you experience any of the above symptoms. You should discus with your urologist whether you are eligible for screening for prostate cancer. To determine the best course of action, we recommend contacting the urology department and consulting with Dr. ABCD. Remember that early detection and treatment can significantly improve your chances of recovery and quality of life.