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10 Common Childhood Illnesses and Their Treatments

10 Common Childhood Illnesses and Their Treatments

It is common for children to get sick frequently. They usually suffer from respiratory and digestive symptoms. Therefore, as parents, it is essential to understand the latest treatment protocols, which can be both symptomatic and specific.


Common ailments in children include colds and a number of other respiratory infections. These ailments, including sore throats, skin infections, and ear infections, are typically contracted by children at some point in time as they develop their immune systems. Some illnesses, however treatable, may cause complications, morbidity, and even fatality if diagnosis and treatment are not done at the earliest. In order to promptly seek appropriate care, parents and other caregivers must be aware of common children's ailments.


Below is a list of 10 common childhood illnesses, along with their specific symptoms, treatments, and preventive measures.


Common Childhood Illness:


1. Sore throat

A sore throat is an illness that hurts and irritates the throat, frequently making it feel scratchy. Children often suffer from it, and the symptoms frequently get worse while eating or drinking. It can be caused by many pathogenic viruses and bacteria. The group A streptococcus, which causes strep throat, is extremely infectious and spreads through contact with infected people or respiratory droplets.


The typical signs of a sore throat include:

  • Pain
  • Rough or itchy throat
  • Swallowing issues
  • Voice changes
  • Fever 
  • Cough
  • Clogged nose
  • Sneezing
  • Vomiting




Doctors usually prescribe antibiotics for bacterial infections. Even if the symptoms lessen or disappear, the recommended course of antibiotics must be taken to prevent complications like rheumatic fever. 


The majority of kids who have viral sore throat recover in seven to 10 days. Additionally, steroid medicines are not advised for the treatment of sore throats.

2. Skin infections:

Children frequently develop skin infections, which can affect any region of the body. It can be caused by bacterial, fungal, viral, or allergic triggers. Paediatric dermatologists may examine the skin illness and may request a skin sample or skin culture to determine the exact cause. These can manifest as:

  • Itchy, reddish skin
  • Painful rashes
  • Skin inflammation
  • Fever 
  • Rashes
  • Skin eruptions and rashes (elevated bumps)


Depending on the source of skin infection and the severity of the illness, several treatments may be available. Several kinds of topical or oral antifungals, antibiotics, or antivirals are recommended for children. The majority of kids respond favorably to the therapy, and the skin lesions may disappear in a few weeks. 

3. Stomach Flu (Gastroenteritis):

An infection of the intestines is characterized by fever, cramping, nausea, and vomiting. Typically, the spread of stomach flu occurs through contact with an infected person, tainted food, or polluted water. This can be seen as:

  • Usually bloodless and watery diarrhoea
  • Vomiting, nausea, or both Stomach ache and cramps
  • Occasional headaches or muscular pains
  • A minor fever

Doctors typically advise patients to drink plenty of fluids, get plenty of rest, eat non-spicy foods, and avoid certain foods. In some cases, the doctors also prescribe anti-diarrheal medications.

4. Bacterial sinusitis:

Inflammation of the sinus lining brought on by bacterias that get trapped inside the sinuses is known as bacterial sinusitis. Aside from allergic sinusitis brought on by hay fever, children can also develop viral sinusitis following a cold.

Children who have bacterial sinusitis frequently experience cold-like symptoms such as daytime coughing and prolonged nasal discharge (greater than 10 days).

  • Thick yellow nasal discharge with a three-day or longer consecutive fever
  • Irritability.
  • A terrible headache.
  • Light sensitivity and eyelid puffiness.

For children with bacterial sinusitis, ten or more days of antibiotics are recommended.

5. Common cold:

A common cold is an illness of the upper respiratory tract caused by different viruses. Although a variety of viruses may cause colds, rhinoviruses are the most frequent pathogens. A runny nose is one of the typical cold symptoms. Other than that, symptoms include:

  • Congested nose
  • Cough
  • Minor fever
  • Muscle pain
  • Streaming eyes

Within 10 days, cold symptoms can limit themselves. During colds, doctors may advise using humidifiers, asking the child to drink water, and getting adequate rest. Some kids could be treated for symptoms. 

6. Pain:

One of the common issues that most kids deal with is pain. Children can experience severe pain from injuries, diseases, and medical procedures. Children may also complain of throbbing or cramping aches, which may be associated with developing pains in the musculoskeletal system. Children's aches and pains can also result from overindulging in activities.

The goal of pain management is to alleviate symptoms. Ibuprofen and acetaminophen (Tylenol) are frequently used for pain relief. Despite the fact that these drugs are accessible over-the-counter, you should speak to your child's physician to find out the precise dosages based on your child's weight and age. For relief, you might also try home remedies such as applying warm compresses and massages.

7. Ear ache:

Ear pain is common in children and can be caused by a variety of conditions, including swimmer's ear (infection of the skin in the ear canal), ear infections (otitis media), sinus or cold pressure, toothache that radiates up the jaw to the ear, and others.

Your physician might determine that an antibiotic is the best course of action only if your kid's ear pain is severe, affects both ears, is followed by a high temperature, or your child exhibits other symptoms of sickness.

True ear infections are generally triggered by viral infections and therefore do not require antibiotic treatment. Your physician will discuss with you the best methods to treat your child's ear pain while they wait for it to limit itself.


8. Bronchitis:

Inflammation of the bronchial tube linings in the lungs is known as bronchitis. In most children, this infection is only temporary (acute bronchitis). Children seldom get chronic bronchitis, a long-lasting bronchial infection. Bronchitis can be brought on by viruses, germs, and irritants to the airways. Children who have chronic sinusitis, big tonsils or adenoids, allergies, asthma, or allergies are more likely to get bronchitis. Additionally, exposure to secondhand smoking might raise a child's risk.

Children who have bronchitis may exhibit 

  • Dry or productive cough (with sputum)
  • Stuffy nose
  • Chest pain
  • Cold and a little fever
  • Tightness or congestion in the chest
  • Muscle pain
  • Throat pain
  • Vomiting

Paediatricians may advise children to get lots of rest, drink plenty of fluids, use humidifiers, and take cough, fever, and pain medications. For pain and fever, doctors typically give ibuprofen or acetaminophen. In accordance with the child's age and other considerations, cough medicines are also administered with prudence.


9. Urinary tract infections (UTI):

UTIs, which commonly result from the accumulation of bacteria, can affect any component of the urinary system, including the urethra, bladder, ureter, and kidneys. A UTI can occur at any age, and because of the shorter length of the urethra, females are more vulnerable than boys.

Children's urethras can be contaminated by constipation and improperly cleaning the anal area after using the restroom. Typically, these infections progress from the lower to the higher urinary tracts, and then from the urethra to the kidneys.

Children with UTIs commonly display the following signs and symptoms:

  • Painful urination.
  • ache in the side or groin 
  • abdominal pain
  • Fever
  • Urgency to urinate
  • Frequent urination
  • Toilet-trained children's bedwetting (enuresis)

Urine tests are typically requested by pediatricians prior to writing drug prescriptions. Depending on the pathogens discovered in a child's urine, different antibiotic therapies may be recommended for UTIs. Additionally, doctors may advise drinking more fluids.  


10. Cough:

Coughs are typically caused by viruses and do not generally necessitate the use of antibiotics.

Children under the age of 4 and those between the ages of 4 and 6 are not encouraged to use cough medication unless specifically instructed to do so by a physician. According to several studies, cough suppressants do not function in children under the age of 4 and have the potential to cause catastrophic adverse effects. Parents should be careful in giving cough treatments with syrups containing codeine.



Children often fall sick due to a weaker immune system. These illnesses are frequently self-limiting or go away with simple home remedies without the need for special medications. However, consulting a physician is advised for a precise diagnosis and course of therapy. Additionally, medical attention is necessary for any diseases that have severe symptoms or linger longer than normal. Mild bacterial or viral illnesses can occasionally progress to more severe infections. And in some conditions, it does not get better despite therapy, so keeping your doctor constantly informed is of the utmost importance.

Medanta Medical Team
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