What is Gynecomastia?

Gynecomastia is a disorder affecting males. It is medically defined as the swelling of the male breast tissues due to hormonal imbalance. Gynecomastia can affect either of the breasts, and sometimes both unevenly.The disorder may affect newborn male child, boys undergoing puberty, and even older men. The disorder gynecomastia does not create any serious health issues, but it can be socially and emotionally stressful. Males suffering from the condition may feel a sharp pain at times. The condition may subside on its own. However, in certain cases one might need certain medications or a small corrective surgery.

This disease results from an unbalanced hormonal environment in the body, with an excess of estrogens (female hormones) as compared to androgens (male hormones). This disease can even result as a side effect of various medications and drugs.


Men with the disorder may have a firm and tender rubbery mass under the area of the nipple. Fluid discharge may also occur in a few cases. Breast enlargement may occur in one or both of the breast and may affect unevenly. The common visible symptoms of the disorder may include:

  • Breast tenderness.
  • Swollen breast gland tissue.



Gynecomastia is the condition triggered by male hormone imbalance (testerone and estrogen). The disorder occurs when there is a decrease in testosterone compared to estrogen hormone. Major reasons causing the imbalance are:

  • Natural hormone changes.
  • Medications such as digoxin or lanoxin, gastric motility medications, cimetidine, and more.
  • Street drugs and alcohol.
  • Health conditions.


Gynecomastia has no medical severity, but the only factors that make it untreatable or difficult to deal with are:

  • Embarrassment and social/peer pressure.
  • Changes in appearance.
  • Psychological or emotional problems.


In order to prevent the occurrence of this disease, one should take care of the following things:

  • Make smart lifestyle choices.
  • Avoiding use of drugs like marijuana.
  • Taking proper diet and exercising.

How is it diagnosed?

At Medanta, our doctor takes down the medical and family history, list or details of medications, and other symptoms. A careful physical evaluation of the breast tissues, abdomen, and genitals is a...

How is it treated?

Most cases of gynecomastia disorder degenerate over time and needs no treatment or medications. In case it gets severe, one of the popular techniques to treat this disease is:


  • Reduction mammoplasty

    It is a kind of breast reduction surgery which is only used when the disease worsens, and when no drug therapies are effective.

  • Danazol

    It is a less often used drug to treat enlarged breast. It is a synthetic derivative of testosterone, which inhibits the pituitary secretion of hormone, which is follicle-stimulating and decreases estrogen synthesis from testicles.

When do I contact the doctor?

You should immediately seek medical advice if you feel there is swelling in the breast area, sharp shooting pain, tenderness, and nipple discharge from one or both the breasts. Our medical experts are going to prepare you thoroughly for the procedure, and treat the disease right.

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