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What is Colon Cancer? Learn its Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment



What is Colorectal Cancer?


Colorectal cancer is cancer that affects whichever, the rectum or the colon. Whereas cancer
that specifically attacks the colon is called colon cancer, and cancer that attacks the rectum is
called rectal cancer. Generally, but not in all cases, colorectal cancer develops in due course
because of precancerous polyps.

The growth (polyps) modifies after mutations in their cellular DNAs. Family inheritance, alcohol
abuse, cancer in the colon or rectum, and bowel ailment can also be held responsible for
carcinoma rectum and colon. Usually, colorectal cancer affects the rectum and the colon. But
the colon consists of four different parts that have a specific effect on it.

Ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid are the four different passages of the colon
which is a connection between the small intestine and the rectum. The digested food moves
across all these parts of the colon and carcinoma can involve any one of them.

Cancer can have an influence on any person irrespective of age and sex. There is no proven
reason behind the development of precancerous growth yet. However, the risk increases along
with the age, and commonly people above the age of fifty are more infected. Lifestyle factors
and other medical conditions can also contribute to the development of harmful nodules.
Inflammatory bowel disease can increase the odds of carcinoma rectum and colon.
As discussed above, intoxicants like alcohol, cigarettes, and tobacco increase the risk too. One
must stay physically active to avoid any alter production in the body. Low fibre intake and a diet
full of calories and fat are also serious factors reasons.


Symptoms of Colorectal Cancer


Unluckily, there are some forms of colorectal cancer that show no signs or show them only
when the disease has advanced. There is also a possibility of the symptoms getting merged
with two different ailments. Inflammatory bowel disease has almost similar indications to that of
colon cancer. The best way to detect is to go through regular examinations to prevent the
disease from establishing itself.


The screenings play an important role for those who have a family history of such cancer.
People over the age of fifty with any indications should also get themselves well-checked.


  • Change in bowel habits is one of the most noticeable indications of colon cancer.
    Constipation, diarrhoea, and incomplete bowel evacuation may be signs of the same.
    However, these are also symptoms for other diseases which are not as serious.


  • Blood in the stool is another significant indication. It may be because of other
    complications such as haemorrhoids and fissures but also point towards cancer at times.
    One must get themselves checked by medical professionals if they experience this
    symptom without the presence of any other above-mentioned conditions.


  • Anemia is a condition in which the body falls short of enough red blood cells. It may
    make you feel unusually tired because of reasons that may not be ruled out. An anaemic
    person is usually also short of breath at most times.


  • Some other possible symptoms of colon cancer can be pain in the abdominal or pelvic
    region. Unexplained loss of weight and unusual vomit episodes.

How is the Diagnosis Likely To be Before the Carcinoma Treatment?


In the vein of any other disease, carcinoma treatment also begins with a first-hand diagnosis.
The process is usually completed by running a few tests on the patient to find out the real
problem. The medical advisor will ask for symptoms prior to conducting tests. The tests we will
be discussing are often performed after the patient has started showing symptoms. However,
the routine check-up is carried on before the indications.

In most cases, a blood test is the first step in the diagnosis process. A few imaging tests are
also performed afterwards, these may include an MRI, a CT scan, X-RAYS, and ultrasounds. A
biopsy is also an option to confirm the disease. Another test that is highly recommended by
professionals is called colonoscopy.


Carcinoma Rectum Treatment


Approximating to any other form of cancer, carcinoma rectum treatment is also based on the
stage of colorectal cancer. The stages signify how severe or mild the cancerous cells in the
body are and what kind of treatment is needed. The remedy usually ranges from surgery to

In stage one; the typical treatment method is surgery to remove the affected part of the colon
and the rectum. If cancer has reached the second stage, then also the ideal method is to
preferably remove the affected organ as it still may not have affected any other organ.

Additionally, chemotherapy may be required in this case.
In the later stages which are the third and fourth, surgery along with both chemotherapy and
radiation could be done. However, surgery cannot be performed in the most advanced stage so
the patient may be given both treatments together to delay to relieving the symptoms.




A disease like cancer can be daunting and life-taking. Although, taking proper care of the body
and getting yourself checked if there is a family history can be revolutionary.

Medanta Medical Team
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