A hernia is a break in the tissue or muscle that causes a portion of internal organs to bulge out. A protrusion of an internal organ or intestines might be the cause of this bulge. There are different types of hernia based on the location. Inguinal (inner groin), incisional (caused by an incision after previous surgery), femoral (outer groin), umbilical (belly button), and hiatal hernias are the most common types of hernias (through diaphragm). The hernia treatment depends on the type of hernia and your overall health.
The following are some of the most prevalent forms of hernias:
Umbilical hernia: This hernia develops when a portion of the intestine or fat protrudes between the abdominal muscles near the belly button. These can be there sometimes as a small weak spot since birth that becomes symptomatic over time or enlarges. GI surgery is a common treatment for this often utilizing a synthetic mesh that gives strength to the area.
Femoral hernia: Such types of hernia occur as a result of protrusion of fat or intestine in the bottom area of your groin, adjacent to the femoral artery. Femoral hernia treatment involves GI surgery to push the bulge back into place. Open and laparoscopic approaches are used by specialist surgeons for the treatment of such types of hernia.
Incisional hernia: Abdominal surgeries may sometimes cause a flaw in the abdominal wall where either the stitches give away or complete healing has not occurred. This defect can lead to a weakness that can lead to the formation of a hernia. This is observed with an overall risk of 2 - 10 % following GI surgery. These usually need repair with a synthetic mesh as scaffolding to provide strength. Large incisional hernia may require Abdominal Wall Reconstruction (AWR) with use of component separation techniques such as Transverse Abdominis Muscle Release (TAR) by specialist surgeons.
Inguinal hernia: These are more commonly known as Groin hernia and are one of the most common types of hernia. Both men and women can develop inguinal hernias, although males are far more likely to get affected. These are usually repaired laparoscopically with mesh placement in the groin.
Spigelian hernia: This type of hernia occurs in the Spigelian fascia, which is located several inches lateral to the midline of the abdomen along the rectus abdominus muscle's border. Although it is an uncommon kind of hernia, it should be discussed with your doctor for correct diagnosis and the creation of a treatment plan as needed.
Epigastric hernia: A weakening in the abdominal wall above the navel area and below the sternum of the rib cage causes an epigastric hernia. It manifests as pain. It does not resolve through natural healing, so it is important to obtain a thorough diagnosis. The only way to repair an epigastric hernia is to undergo GI surgery to avoid further complications.
Hiatal hernia: When a portion of the stomach presses through the natural orifice in the diaphragm that has become wider, such types of hernia arises. Normally, the diaphragm has a tiny aperture for the esophagus. This aperture may become an opening for the portion of the stomach to push through. If causing symptoms these often need surgery including a Fundoplication procedure. These hernias are frequently corrected simultaneously with bariatric surgery to lessen the risk of complications from gastroesophageal reflux disease.
Diaphragmatic hernia: This is mainly due to a congenital abnormality that causes a hole in the diaphragm, allowing belly contents to enter the chest cavity. These need surgical correction.
The treatment for a Hernia is surgery to repair the gap and often requires reinforcement of the weak tissues with a prosthesis (mesh). Surgery is the most common and efficient method of hernia treatment. Surgical repair is determined by the type of hernia, its size, the degree of symptoms, and overall health. Occasionally if your anaesthesia risk is high and symptoms are not there your consulting physician may decide to simply wait and watch the hernia. Another option is to put up a truss (a supportive undergarment that helps in holding the hernia in place). To ease any discomfort and improve symptoms, your doctor may prescribe drugs such as antacids, proton pump inhibitors, and H2 blockers.
It is advisable to contact your doctor and receive a full examination. Your consulting physician will create a proper treatment plan for you and determine the best treatment technique for your needs. Doctors at Medanta perform the full spectrum of Hernia surgeries including AWR techniques for complex hernias, utilizing the latest advances in abdominal component separation techniques.