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Things You Should Know About Thyroid



The thyroid gland is a small butterfly-shaped gland in the neck that produces thyroid hormones. These hormones stand responsible for maintaining the body's metabolism, mood, body temperature, and lot many other functions of the body. When this gland starts producing less or excess hormones than usual, it results in thyroid disease. A thyroid condition needs to be diagnosed and treated, or it can result in serious health conditions. Read on to find out the causes and symptoms of thyroid disease:


Causes of thyroid

Thyroid disease is basically of two types- hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Below mentioned are the causes of both thyroid conditions that impact the proper working of thyroid glands:


Causes for hypothyroidism


Hashimoto’s thyroiditis

It is mostly an inherited autoimmune condition wherein the cells of the body tend to attack the thyroid glands. It is a painless disease but damages the thyroid gland.


Postpartum thyroid

It is a thyroid condition that shows up in women after giving birth to their babies. About 5% to 9%of women get to face this issue, but it usually goes off and is a temporary condition.


Deficiency of iodine

Iodine is an ingredient that causes the thyroid glands to produce hormones. But deficiency of iodine can cause thyroid.



This is a condition that causes swollen thyroid glands and causes the thyroid glands to produce fewer hormones than required.


Non-functional thyroid gland

This is a case when a child is born with a thyroid gland that doesn’t function properly since birth. Though it is a rare case and only affects 1 out of 4000 newborns, the treatment should start immediately, or it can cause mental and physical issues to the child at a later phase of life.


Causes for hyperthyroidism


Iodine excess

Just opposite to the case of hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism is caused when your body has too much iodine, which triggers excess thyroid hormone production.



Thyroiditis is a condition in which the thyroid gland produces and releases more hormones than normal.


Graves’ disease

Graves’ disease results in an overactive thyroid gland which hikes the production of hormones resulting in hyperthyroidism. This condition results in enlarged thyroid glands, which is also known as diffused toxic goiter.


Signs and symptoms of thyroid


There are multiple warning signs of thyroid; here we list the common thyroid disease symptoms that you are prone to notice if you have thyroid:


Skipped periods

Thyroid condition also affects the fertility and menstrual cycle in women and can cause skipped periods even when a woman is not pregnant. Women with hypothyroidism condition are more prone to witness such a symptom because the hormones produced are not enough to release eggs that are required for the ovulation process, raising infertility issues. Such women are also at a higher risk of facing pregnancy issues and miscarriage.


Sensitivity to heat and cold

Hyperthyroidism can also show symptoms like excessive sweating and sensitivity to heat. On the contrary, people with hypothyroidism can struggle to keep themselves warm. The body of people who have thyroid issues produces either less or a huge number of hormones than normal which confuses the body about how much heat and energy to produce, which results in sensitivity to heat and cold.


This sensitivity can also occur because of being overweight, because the more the body weight, the more the chances that you feel hot. Underactive thyroid or hypothyroidism is more likely to cause weight gain. On the other hand, people with an overactive thyroid gland face a lot of difficulty in gaining weight which can make them sensitive to cold.


Feeling tiredness and fatigue

Hyperthyroidism can cause difficulty in sleeping at night, which leads to experiencing fatigue and tiredness. On the contrary, hypothyroidism can lead to depletion of energy from the body, which results in weakness of muscles and a feeling of being worn out and tired.


Significant weight gain or weight loss

Changes in weight are also an obvious symptom of overactive and underactive thyroid. In the case of hyperthyroidism, the thyroid gland produces an excess of hormones besides affecting the metabolism of your body, you can see sudden weight loss without practicing a weight loss regime. Furthermore, you tend to gain weight if you suffer from hypothyroidism which causes the metabolism of your body to slow down.


Change in the appearance

Besides weight fluctuations, thyroid problems also cause a change in the overall looks and appearance of a person. Skin irritation, red and itchy patches, brittle hair, hair fall, swelling in the joints, puffy face, and swelling in the neck are some common signs that you get to see if you have thyroid.


Feeling miserable

Apart from noticing changes in physical appearance, a person with a thyroid also feels depressed as the thyroid can hamper mental wellness and overall mood. It can also cause a person to feel more anxious, nervous, and irritated.


Diagnosis of thyroid disease

The thyroid symptoms are usually confused with other medical conditions, which may make it difficult for a person to understand if he/she has thyroid. Also, there are chances that you may get symptoms that are similar to the symptoms of aging and pregnancy. Thus, to diagnose thyroid, here are a few diagnosis methods practiced in the medical field for the detection of the thyroid:



We hope that this guide gives you a quick insight into the signs and symptoms that one gets to see if they have thyroid issues. So, if you are someone who shows such signs and symptoms, get yourself tested for thyroid and seek medical assistance to gain control over your thyroid disorder.

Medanta Medical Team
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