How is Prostate Cancer diagnosed?
What is Prostate Cancer?
Prostate cancer is one of the most common types of cancer that occurs in the prostate. Males have a small walnut-shaped gland called the prostate that generates seminal fluid, which nourishes and transports sperm.
The prostate is located beneath the bladder (a hollow organ that stores urine) and in front of the rectum (the last part of the intestines). Seminal vesicles, located just behind the prostate, produce the majority of the fluid for semen. The urethra, the tube that transports urine and sperm out of the body through the penis, runs through the prostate's core.
What are the types of Prostate Cancer?
The types of prostate cancer include:
- Acinar adenocarcinoma
- Ductal adenocarcinoma
- Transitional cell (or urothelial) cancer
- Squamous cell cancer
- Small cell prostate cancer
What are the symptoms of prostate cancer?
The signs and symptoms of prostate cancer include:
- Trouble urinating
- Decreased force in the stream of urine
- Blood in the urine
- Blood in the semen
- Bone pain
- Losing weight without trying
- Erectile dysfunction
What are the risk factors of prostate cancer?
There are various factors that may influence a man's risk of developing prostate cancer:
- Age: Prostate cancer is unusual in men under the age of 40, but it becomes more common beyond the age of 50.
- Family history: Prostate cancer appears to run in some families, implying that there may be an inherited or genetic element in some cases. Despite this, the majority of prostate cancers arise in men who have no family history of the disease.
- Obesity: Obese people are more likely to have cancer that is more aggressive and that returns after therapy.
How is prostate cancer diagnosed?
If your doctor suspects prostate cancer as a result of screening tests or symptoms, the following tests can be recommended:
- PSA - Prostate Specific Antigen a tumor marker to investigate and rule out prostate cancer.
- Ultrasound: The probe creates an image of your prostate gland using sound waves and provides basic information for detailed assessment.
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): Your doctor may recommend an MRI scan of the prostate in some cases to get a more detailed view. Your doctor may use MRI scans to assist and arrange a diagnostic investigation to remove prostate tissue samples.
- Sample collection of prostate tissue: Your doctor may propose a procedure to harvest a sample of cells from your prostate to see if there are cancer cells present (prostate biopsy). A small needle is introduced into the prostate to collect tissue during a prostate biopsy. In a lab, the tissue sample is examined to see if cancer cells are present.
For more information on prostate cancer related issues and best treatment options, visit Medanta Hospital and get medical assistance from our expert team of doctors.