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Causes, Treatments, and Complications: Nausea and Vomiting

Causes, Treatments, and Complications: Nausea and Vomiting

What is nausea and vomiting?


Infection ("stomach flu"), food poisoning, motion sickness, overeating, a clogged bowel, illness, a concussion or brain damage, appendicitis, and migraines are all potential causes of nausea and vomiting. Sometimes, nausea and vomiting indicate something more severe in the body, such as a heart attack, kidney or liver illness, central nervous system issue, brain tumor, or cancer. There are several options for treating nausea, which may affect both adults and children. Eating light, bland meals and drinking ice-cold drinks may help.




 What is the difference between feeling nauseous and vomiting?


Nausea is a feeling of discomfort, often overlapping with the desire to vomit. Vomiting is ejecting one's stomach contents via one's mouth, willingly or involuntarily.


Possible Vomiting causes include:

  • The digestive tract (infection, damage, and food irritation).
  • The vestibular system (dizziness and motion sickness).
  • The central nervous system (head injury, brain infections, tumors, and migraine headaches).



Who is more likely to experience nausea and vomiting?


Both toddlers and adults are susceptible to experiencing nausea and vomiting. Nausea and vomiting are common side effects of cancer therapies, including radiation therapy and chemotherapy. The term "morning sickness" is often used to describe nausea and to vomit some pregnant women suffer during their first trimester. Approximately half to 90% of pregnant women report feeling nauseous.






What causes Nauseous and Vomiting?


Both nausea and vomiting are symptoms rather than causes of illness.

  • Feeling unwell when traveling or while at sea.
  • Early pregnancy (nausea affects between 50%-90% of expecting mothers, whereas vomiting affects 25%-55%).
  • Medication
  • Intense pain
  • Mental and emotional strain (such as fear)
  • An illness of the gallbladder
  • Case of the stomach flu
  • Infections (such as the "stomach flu")
  • Overeating
  • A smell-related response
  • Perilous Heart Condition
  • Brain damage or concussion
  • Tumors of the brain
  • Ulcers
  • For example, several types of cancer.
  • Psychiatric disorders like bulimia
  • Conditions characterized by impaired gastric emptying (gastroparesis) (a condition that can be seen in people with diabetes)
  • Poisoning or excessive alcohol consumption
  • Bloating
  • Appendicitis


Age-specific differences in vomiting triggers are to be expected. Common causes of vomiting in children include viral infections, food poisoning, milk allergies, motion sickness, overfeeding, excessive coughing, obstructed intestines, and high fever.



Is there anything that can be done to control vomiting?


There are many strategies for preventing or vomiting treatment nevertheless, if these methods are ineffective, it is best to see a medical professional.


  • Take something with no color or flavor and drink it very cold.
  • Stick to simple, bland fare (such as saltine crackers or plain bread).
  • Avoid anything very sugary, fatty, or deep-fried.
  • Slow down and eat more often.
  • You should never combine cold and hot dishes.
  • Take your time and sip your drink.
  • Rest after you has eaten.
  • Never brush your teeth just after a meal.
  • To ensure you're getting enough nutrients, eat items from each food category as your body adjusts.


  • Regardless of age or reason, treatment for vomiting entails:
  • Consuming progressively more water or other clear liquids
  • Don't eat anything solid until the vomiting stops.
  • Resting


To minimize stomach irritation and vomiting, it is best to stop using oral drugs temporarily.


The administration of an oral rehydrating solution is recommended for the treatment and prevention of dehydration in cases of prolonged vomiting and diarrhea lasting more than 24 hours.


Surgery, radiation treatment, anticancer therapies, alcohol, and morphine may all cause nausea and vomiting, although they can frequently be addressed with other medications. Prescription and over-the-counter medications are available to treat nausea and vomiting brought on by pregnancy, motion sickness, and vertigo. However, it would be best to talk to your doctor before trying these remedies.




How can I avoid feeling sick?


Avoiding these things may help you feel better and less nauseated:


  • Consuming several smaller meals rather than three big ones per day.
  • Consuming food slowly
  • Keeping away from meals that are difficult to digest
  • Eating cold or room-temperature items instead of hot or warm ones might help those who get queasy from the scent of cooking.
  • Avoid feeling sick after eating by resting your head up around 12 inches.




If you wake up feeling queasy, try snacking on crackers before you get out of bed or have a high-protein snack (lean meat or cheese) before you turn in. Get your daily water intake in by drinking six to eight 8-ounce glasses of water between meals (rather than with them), and you won't need to worry about dehydration. If possible, try to eat when your stomach feels less queasy.




When is it time to see a doctor?


When symptoms like nausea and vomiting first appear might be a clue as to what's happening. Nausea or vomiting that occurs soon after eating may indicate a psychiatric condition or a peptic ulcer. In some instances of food poisoning, symptoms such as nausea and vomiting appear one to eight hours after eating. The incubation period for foodborne infections may be extensive, especially for Salmonella.


If nausea persists, especially if pregnancy is possible, a person should see a doctor. After six to twenty-four hours, most people feel better and can stop vomiting without medical help.


If you've tried home remedies and they haven't helped, you're dehydrated, or you know that an injury (such as a head injury or illness) is to blame for the vomiting, you should consult a doctor.



A visit to the doctor is required for a newborn or a kid less than six years old if:




  • Long-lasting nausea and vomiting
  • Further, there is diarrhea.
  • When dehydration begins to show its symptoms
  • Symptoms include a temperature greater than 100 degrees Fahrenheit
  • The kid hasn't gone to the bathroom in six hours.
  • If your youngster is older than 6 years old:
  • Irritable, not taking feeds
  • Everybody vomits once, and it only lasts a day.
  • More than 24 hours of nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea
  • Warning symptoms of dehydration
  • The temperature is above 102 degrees Fahrenheit.
  • The kid hasn't gone to the bathroom in six hours.
  • If an adult has persistent vomiting for more than a day, diarrhea and vomiting for more than 24 hours, or shows mild dehydration, they should see a doctor.




If any of the following symptoms develop, you should seek medical attention right away:



The presence of blood in the stomachs contents ("coffee grounds" appearance)


  • Neck pain or severe headache
  • Lethargy
  • Confusion
  • Lack of insomnia
  • Severe pain in stomach
  • Fever more than 101 degrees accompanied by vomiting
  • In addition to being sick, the patient also has diarrhea.
  • A racing heartbeat or breath



Nausea and vomiting complications


Dehydration may occur from persistent vomiting in addition to diarrhea. Younger children, or anybody suffering from severe dehydration, may need more intensive therapy.


Dr. Nilabh Kumar Singh
Meet The Doctor
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