What is Glaucoma?

Glaucoma is a group of eye disorders which cause damage to the optic nerve. The optic nerve connects the eye to the brain and transmits images. This optic nerve is damaged when intraocular pressure inside the eye becomes higher than normal. This condition is also called ocular hypertension or high eye pressure. The disorder is an inherited condition and worsens over time leading to permanent vision loss. A timely treatment and detection can protect the eye against serious vision loss and permanent blindness.

Two main types of glaucoma are open angle glaucoma (OAG) and narrow angle glaucoma (NAG). OAG refers to cases where the watery fluid built-up inside the eye can access the drainage angle to form its path out of the eye. NAG refers to a condition where the watery fluid cannot access the drainage path.


Most people do not develop early symptoms of glaucoma. However, the only first sign is a peripheral loss of angled or side vision. For an early detection, in case any symptoms of vision difficulty, complete eye check up with a specialist on regular basis is advised. The symptoms that should not be ignored or are grouped as early signals are:

  • Difficulty in seeing.
  • Peripheral or partial vision loss.
  • Redness in the eyes.
  • Hazy eyes particularly for infants.
  • Nausea and vomiting.
  • Eye pain.
  • Narrowed tunnel vision.


Glaucoma occurs due to pressure build-up inside the eye because of obstruction in the path of liquid movement in front part of the eye. The fluid called aqueous humor, moves within the eye through a mesh like structure. In case of any obstruction inside this channel, pressure builds up leading to glaucoma. Probable causes of the disease include:

  • Infection.
  • Injury.
  • Blocked blood vessels of eye.
  • Eye inflammation.


The main risk factors are:

  • Origin.
  • Age above 40.
  • An inherited factor or genetics.
  • Diabetes and poor vision.
  • Under steroid medications.
  • Trauma or injury to eye.



To prevent the occurrence of this disease, there are certain things one should take care of:

  • Regular eye health.
  • Safe exercise.
  • Taking prescribed eye drops.
  • Wearing eye protection.

How is it diagnosed?

In case the patient complains of eye pain or redness in the eye, which is persistent and leads to sudden loss of vision, the doctor may ask him to undergo:


How is it treated?

Depending on severity and complexity of the disease, doctors may recommend further course of action/ medication. At Medanta, our doctor may prescribe:


  • Eye drops

    They help reduce pressure build up by increasing the liquid flow or outflow. However, side- effects may include itching, redness, allergy, blurred vision, etc.

  • Laser surgery

    As it opens the fluid blockage, it is effective for people suffering from open angle glaucoma. The procedure helps to open the drainage (Trabeculoplasty) by creating a hole for fluid flow (Iridotomy) and treating mid affected layer of the eye to reduce fluid pressure (Cyclophotocoagulation).

When do I contact the doctor?

You should immediately consult a doctor, if you begin to experience blind spots in your vision, face a trouble seeing, or experience vomiting and nausea. At Medanta, all these symptoms will be treated just right with the expert medical and clinical help. 

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