Epilepsy or Seizure Disorder

What is Epilepsy?

Epilepsy, more commonly known as seizure disorder is a neurological disorder, affecting people of all age groups. Main symptoms of epilepsy include recurrent and unprovoked attacks of seizures. If not diagnosed and treated in time, Epilepsy can lead to serious complications.

The source of epilepsy is the electrical circuits in the brain. Abnormal electrical events in the brain can cause seizures of different kinds. Epilepsy can occur due to multiple reasons including complications during birth of the baby, brain injury, stroke, brain tumours, brain infections, and abnormal development of brain can be the main cause for epilepsy, although the exact reason may remain unknown in many of the cases. Epilepsy can sometimes be related to genetic factors as well.

Epilepsy symptoms can vary according to type of seizures. A focal seizure may originate from a specific part of the brain and will manifest accordingly. A big seizure or generalised seizure is the most common type of recognised seizures. However various other types include transient confusional state, state of starring look with unresponsiveness, some abnormal movements like chewing type, swallowing, rubbing hands or speaking abnormally for a very brief period. Some of the seizures may have just up rolling of eyes with head and eyes going to one side and may have twisting of either arms or hands.

Untreated seizures can have serious results and cause harm especially related to fall and injuries to various body parts.

The common understanding and public perception regarding epilepsy is often a greater challenge than the seizures itself. Lack of awareness in general public, schools and various organizations leads to stigma of epilepsy. A person with epilepsy should be able to disclose about epilepsy in a healthy and comfortable environment including school, colleges and working places.


The main symptom of epilepsy is recurrent seizures, but there are other signs and symptoms that may hint at epilepsy. These are:

  • Abnormal twitching of one side of the body
  • Briefly unresponsive behaviours.
  • Sudden unexplained stiffening.
  • Sudden chewing or blinking.
  • Repetitive body movement that appears abnormal.
  • A sudden fall for no reason
  • Any repetitive confusional state
  • Brief abnormal movements during sleep
  • Sudden jerking of hands with dropping of objects


There can be various causes that can lead to epilepsy:

  • Brain injury causing scar in the brain

  • Brain infections

  • Brain tumor

  • Stroke or any bleeding in the brain

  • Brain abnormality by birth

  • Brain injury during delivery of the baby

  • Genetic factors in some cases


The main risk factors are:

  • Head injury.

  • High fever or seizures during childhood.

  • Old Stroke.

  • Brain infections.

    It is more common during early childhood and after the age of 60.

    Alcohol related

    Drug addiction


Certain points can be taken care of to prevent the occurrence of epilepsy seizures:

  • Manage your stress levels.
  • Get proper sleep.
  • Adhere to safety rules so as to minimise injury to head.
  • Eat a healthy diet.
  • Avoid drugs and alcohol.

How is it diagnosed?

The first step of diagnosis is a basic physical examination to understand the symptoms, family history, medical history, and an understanding of the overall health of the person. At Medanta, the do...

How is it treated?

Medical treatment- Medical treatment mainly included various medicines for epilepsy. Majority of the patients can be treated easily with single type of medicine. These drugs are safe and can be used for a long-term without much of risk to kidney, ..

  • Medical Procedure

    The doctor may prescribe you certain preventive drugs and antiepileptic drugs.

  • A special diet

    Ketogenic diet that is high in fats and low in carbohydrates is preferred for small children who do not respond to medical therapy.

  • Vagus nerve stimulation

    In it, a device that electronically stimulates the vagus nerve is implanted under the skin to control seizures. Vagus nerve communicates between the brain and other internal organs.

  • Trigeminal nerve stimulation

    It is a new medical treatment that involves stimulation of the trigeminal nerve. The nerve is the communication link between important parts of the brain such as nucleus solitarius, the locus coeruleus, the vagus nerve, and the cerebral cortex.

When do I contact the doctor?

You need to consult the doctor immediately in case of seizures and blackouts. While some of these symptoms may be a result of other medical condition, it is always advisable to receive immediate medical attention. Repeated seizures can cause serious injury and must never be ignored.

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How does Medanta provide care?


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