End Stage Kidney Failure

What is End Stage Kidney Failure?

End stage kidney failure is a condition that occurs when chronic kidney disease reaches its final stage. Chronic kidney disease disturbs the kidney function while in the end stage kidney failure, the kidneys stop working completely i.e. they are unable to filter the fluid wastes. This leads to the accumulation of large amount of wastes in the patient’s body which is dangerous for health.


The symptoms of end stage kidney failure include:

  • Disturbed sleeping patterns
  • Weakness
  • Nausea and severe vomiting
  • Changes in the amount of urine excreted
  • Pain in muscles
  • Swelling in the feet and ankles
  • Itching and rashes on the skin
  • Infections in the urinary tract
  • Fatigue
  • High blood pressure
  • Body ache
  • Decrease in appetite
  • Fever
  • Skin colour becomes pale


The causes of end stage kidney failure include:

  • High blood pressure
  • Diabetes
  • Presence of cysts in the kidney which leads to a condition called Polycystic kidney disease.
  • Infections in the kidney
  • Inflammations in the kidney
  • Blockage in the urinary tract


The risk of having end stage kidney failure increases when a person is suffering from the following conditions:

  • Diabetes and high blood pressure.
  • Nephrotic syndrome- The condition damages the tiny blood vessels present in the kidneys which filter wastes.
  • Polycystic kidney disease- The disease is caused due to the formation of cysts in the kidney.
  • Smoking and drinking- People who smoke and drink are at a higher risk of having end stage kidney failure
  • Family lines: The disease could be running in the family lines of the patient and may get transferred to the next generation.
  • Age: The risk of getting diagnosed with end stage kidney failure increases with age.



End stage kidney failure can be prevented by adopting a healthy and active lifestyle which includes:

  • Keeping the blood glucose and the blood pressure levels under control.
  • Controlling high cholesterol level
  • Quitting smoking and drinking
  • Consuming a balanced diet
  • Regular check-ups


How is diagnosed?

The doctor diagnosis end stage kidney failure by conducting a medical and physical examination of the patient. He also checks the family medical history of the patient and carries out the following...

How is it treated?

The doctor may treat end stage kidney failure using medications and drug therapy or he may opt for procedures like kidney transplant or kidney dialysis. Changing the patient’s lifestyle is also considered an effective treatment for end stage kid..

  • Kidney Transplant

    Kidney transplant involves removing the patient’s diseased kidneys and replacing them with a set of donated healthy kidneys using surgery.

  • Dialysis

    Dialysis is the process through which extra fluids and wastes automatically get removed from the kidneys.

    Dialysis may be of two types:

    • Hemodialysis- The harmful fluids and wastes get filtered using machines which allow the flow of clean blood into the patient’s body.
    • Peritoneal dialysis- The dialysis can be done at the patient’s place. In the procedure, the blood vessels in the patient’s abdominal lining are used for the purification process.

When do I contact the doctor?

One should consult the doctor as soon as they start noticing any signs or symptoms of end stage kidney failure in a person. The appropriate treatment and the associated side effects should be thoroughly evaluated and discussed with the doctor.  

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How does Medanta Provide care?

Medanta ensures expert care for its patients who are diagnosed with end stage kidney failure at the Institute of Kidney and Urology. The institute is a unique resource for patients who are suffering from any disorder associated with the urinary sy..

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