Gum Disease

What is Gum Disease?

Gum disease or periodontal disease occur due to bacterial infections and swelling of the gums. In this condition, bones surrounding the gums will also swell. It is a chronic inflammatory disease and damages the tissues surrounding the teeth. The first stage of gum disease is known as gingivitis. It is a mild form of the disease, in which an individual will have red, swollen gums. Bleeding will also happen. However, there is no serious discomfort at this stage. If an individual takes good oral care at home, it can often be treated in time. A more serious form of gum disease is periodontitis. During this time, the teeth will loosen up from its roots, bone loss will occur, and tooth fall can also happen. The whole tooth system suffers, as the supporting structures suffer from gum disease. Damage to gingival tissues, ligaments, and bones is common. It is a serious oral disease leading to permanent loss of teeth. It usually happens when gingivitis is left untreated. 


Common symptoms of gum disease are:

  • Formation of plaque and tartar on the teeth.
  • Bleeding while biting an apple, or brushing teeth.
  • Bad breath.
  • Bad taste in the mouth.
  • Redness or swelling in gums; soft gums
  • Pain while chewing.
  • Tooth loss.
  • Loose teeth or shaky teeth.


Some common causes of gum disease are:

  • Smoking.
  • Diabetes.
  • Lack of oral hygiene.
  • Stress.
  • Heredity.
  • Damaged fillings.
  • Use of some medications, which makes the mouth dry.



Common risks of gum diseases are:

  • Inflammatory.
  • Heart disease.
  • Rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Premature birth.
  • Dementia.
  • Diabetes.


Following are some measures that prevent gum diseases:

  • Maintain good oral hygiene.
  • Professional cleaning of plaque, tartar, and tooth surface.
  • Use of dental floss, or special brush if there is space between the teeth.
  • Regular dental check up.

How is it diagnosed?

The diagnosis at Medanta might involve the following methods:


How is it treated?

A surgical intervention is required if the symptoms like inflammation and gap exist even after initial professional treatment. 


  • Flap surgery

    It is done to remove deep hard deposits like tartar, or fix the tooth gap from its structure. This will help in filling the pocket between the tooth and gums, to keep it clean. During the surgery, the gums will be pulled back.

  • Bone and tissue grafting

    It is done for regeneration of bone or gum tissue. During bone grafting, a natural or synthetic bone is implanted to replace bone loss. It helps in restoring normal bone growth procedure.

  • Guided tissue regeneration

     During this procedure, surgical mesh is placed between the bone and gum tissue. It facilitates the normal growth of bone and connective gum tissue after gum tissue will not fall into the bone area. A soft tissue graft is done using synthetic material or tissue from your mouth.

When do I contact the doctor?

It is possible that you may have gum disease, but it does not show any signs. You are advised to go regularly for a dental check-up.

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