What is Melanoma?

Melanoma is the most dangerous type of skin cancer and develops from melanocytes. It is identified by the presence of moles that are black or brown in colour. It is more common in men than women. Early diagnosis ensures successful treatment. Undiagnosed melanoma can spread to other parts of the body. It is a kind of cancer that develops in pigment cells called melanocytes. Melanoma can be of more serious nature than other forms of skin cancer. It might spread to other parts of the body and cause serious illness, or even death.


Common symptoms of melanoma include:

  • Change in the shape and colour from previously existing moles.
  • On half of the mole does not match the other half.
  • The border or edges of the mole are ragged, blurred, or irregular.
  • Other paraneoplastic symptoms include nausea, fatigue, vomiting, and loss of appetite.



The main cause of melanomas is damage to the DNA by exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light from the sun. Genetics also play a role in melanoma.



The main risk factors of this disease include:

  • Weakened immune system.
  • Excessive exposure to ultraviolet rays.
  • History of sunburn.



In order to prevent the occurrence of this disease, one should take care of the following:

  • Avoiding ultraviolet rays by wearing sun-protective clothing.
  • Using a sunscreen, which is an effective way to prevent melanoma (sunscreen ingredients like avobenzone, zinc, oxide and titanium dioxide can effectively stop and block both UVA and UVB, even at a lower sun protection factor).
  • Avoiding the use of tanning lamps because they emit UV rays.

How is it diagnosed?

The most basic and common diagnostic technique is visual inspection. Moles that are irregular in shape and colour are called ‘candidates’. It is important for people to learn to recognize moles...

How is it treated?

If melanoma is diagnosed in its early stages, it can be easily treated by biopsy. However, if it has spread beyond the skin, treatment options include:


  • Chemotherapy

    Chemotherapy use drugs to kill cancer cells. The drugs directly target cancer and stop it from spreading to other parts of the body.

  • Biological therapy

    It includes high-powered energy beams that kill cancer cells. This therapy removes lymph nodes and helps relieve symptoms of melanoma.

When do I contact the doctor?

Moles with uneven edges or bleeding indicate an early stage of melanoma. If you experience any such symptoms, consult a doctor immediately. 

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