According to a report by FICCI and Ernst & Young (EY), India’s real cancer incidence for women is estimated at 1 to 1.4 million cases per year. The same report states that in 2015, cancers of the breast (19%), cervix uteri (14%) and ovary (7%) contributed to 40% of all cancers among women. Presently, Indian women have the third-highest number of cancers, just after the USA and China.
Regular screening in women can detect premature symptoms of cancer and can lead to effective treatment outcomes.
No screening - Sexual history is not a consideration
Cytology every 3 years. (A cytology is where cells are examined for diagnosing and screening diseases). In cytology, the pap smear is one of the most common cytology based screenings for cervical cancer
Preferred: Co-testing HPV and cytology every 5 years
Acceptable: Cytology alone every 3 years
Screening can be discontinued after either three consecutive negative cytology tests or two negative cytology and HPV tests within 10 years, provided the most recent test was within 5 years
Women with a history of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2, CIN 3, or adenocarcinoma in situ should continue routine age-based screening for at least 20 years
After total hysterectomy
No screening necessary
Applies to women without a cervix and without a history of CIN 2, CIN 3, adenocarcinoma in situ, or cancer in the past 20 years
After HPV vaccination
Follow the same age-specific recommendations as unvaccinated women
It is not clear who should be screened for ovarian cancer. For now, experts agree that:
Women with the highest risk and who must get screened include those who have had genetic tests showing that they:
Carry genes known as the ‘BRCA’ genes
Have a genetic condition called Lynch Syndrome (also called hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer or "HNPCC")
Women who have a family history of ovarian cancer or a gene that increases their chances of getting ovarian cancer, should opt for screenings.
Women who are at low risk for ovarian cancer do not need to be screened. This includes women who do not have a family history of ovarian cancer or have verified through gene testing that they do not have the cancer gene present in their bodies.
Strategies for screening and prevention of endometrial cancer include
However, routine screening for endometrial carcinoma for most women is not recommended. Women with Lynch Syndrome (hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer), have a lifetime risk of endometrial cancer of 27% -71% compared to 3% of the general population and must be tested.
Women with an average risk of colorectal cancer should begin screening at age 50. Any one of the following screening strategies is recommended :
Colonoscopy: Every 10 years.
Computed tomographic colonography (CTC): Every 5 years.
Flexible sigmoidoscopy every 5 years, with or without an immunochemical stool test.
Stool testing every year (for guaiac and immunochemical occult blood test).