Long and Short QT Syndromes

What are Long and Short QT syndromes?

The electrical system of your heart controls your pulses by using two factors. One is your heart rate or the number of times your heart beats per minute. The second factor is the rhythm of your hea...

Symptoms

Usually, many people with long QT syndrome display no symptoms. Some may have the following symptoms:

  • Syncope
  • Seizures
  • Sudden cardiac death

In short QT syndrome, patients might experience the following symptoms:

  •  Palpitations
  • Syncope
  • Abnormal rhythms of the heart
  • Sudden cardiac death, due to ventricular fibrillation

 

Causes

Both long and short QT syndromes are congenital and are associated with genetic mutations. Although other causes are not completely understood, the risk factors of Long QT syndrome include:

  • Belonging to female gender
  • Liver or renal impairment
  • Progressing age
  • Family history of the syndrome
  • Other cardiovascular diseases
  • Electrolytic imbalance – Hypomagnesemia, Hypocalcemia, Hypokalemia
  • Concurrent administration of interacting drugs

As far as short QT syndrome is considered, researchers suggest that the QT duration decreases owing to increased activity of outward potassium currents in phases of the heart.

Risks

Although other causes are not completely understood, the risk factors of Long QT syndrome include:

  • Belonging to female gender
  • Liver or renal impairment
  • Progressing age
  • Family history of the syndrome
  • Other cardiovascular diseases
  • Electrolytic imbalance – Hypomagnesemia, Hypocalcemia, Hypokalemia

 

Prevention

Nothing much can be done to prevent long and short QT syndrome because the disease is caused due to genetic mutations.

How is it diagnosed?

Short QT syndrome is extremely rare and must be diagnosed by a well-trained electrophysiologist, who is well versed with QT syndromes. The specialist would use electrocardiography, echocardiography...

How is it treated?

Those with long QT syndrome are advised to refrain from participating in competitive sports, strenuous exercise, and being subjected to stress-related emotions. They should also avoid the following, Anesthesia, Asthma drugs, Antihistamines, Antibi..

When do I contact the doctor?

If you tend to faint, have seizures or have irregular heartbeats, you must contact your doctor at the earliest.


 

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