The exact underlying cause of esophageal cancer is not clear. The disease develops when the cells of the esophagus tube corrupts their own DNA. The corrupted cells then grow and multiply rapidly without control, and start accumulating forming a tumour. The structure may grow and hamper other body parts also. The following are some factors that are associated with the disease:
- Alcohol consumption and smoking.
- Bile refluxes and gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD).
- Precancerous cell changes (barrett's esophagus).
- Radiation therapy for treatment of chest.